Professional Development Program Proposal
The term emotional intelligence was introduced into practice in the late 1980s by psychologists Salovey and Mayer. However, some components of EI were studied and developed by psychologists much earlier. For example, empathy, the fundamental component of EI, was proposed for the scientific research and practical work of psychologists since 1939 . Several models of emotional intelligence are described by Stein and Book . Nevertheless, for this coursework, the mixed Goleman model has been chosen since it is the most famous approach to the systemization of emotional intelligence . The Goleman model was based on the model of Salovey and Meyer, but the author added to it a few more components such as perseverance, enthusiasm, and social skills. Thus, Goleman combined cognitive abilities with personal characteristics. Moreover, he enriched his model with skills, relevant to each of the four components of emotional intelligence. Thus, this model has been chosen as the best one for the description of EI as a skill, which makes it possible to explain the impact of EI on motivation and its relation to the social skills along with formation of the effective teams and reward system for the Wells, Fargo & Company.
The Evaluation of the Building Blocks of EI Model
The first component of EI is self-awareness that is based on the analysis of one’s emotions and actions, awareness of their impact on one’s activity. This component is related with the use of intuition in decision-making and based on the skills of emotional self-awareness, self-esteem, which is an understanding of one’s strengths and limitations,and self-confidence. The second component is self-monitoring that is based on skills of curbing emotions, or the ability to control destructive emotions and impulses, and openness, or a manifestation of honesty and integrity, reliability. This component also includes adaptability, which is flexible adaptation to a changing situation and overcoming obstacles, as well as the will to win, initiative, optimism, and social skills as these abilities determine how one manages own relationships with people. Then comes social sensitivity, and it is based on the skills of empathy – the ability to listen to the feelings of others, an understanding of their position, and an active manifestation of a sympathetic attitude toward their problems. Business awareness, or the understanding of current events, hierarchy of responsibility and policy at the organizational level, as well as attentiveness that includes the ability to recognize and satisfy the needs of subordinates, customers, or partners are the components of social sensitivity as well. Finally, the relationship management has such skills at its core as inspiration, or the ability to lead, drawing an exciting picture of the future, and influence that implies the possession of a series of persuasion tactics. At the same time, the encouragement of others development, facilitating changes,conflict management, strengthening personal relationships,teamwork and cooperation also belong to the fourth component of EI. Thus, all described components of EI, as proposed by Goleman, will affect the management’s ability to enhance employee performance and job satisfaction. Moreover, the majority of skills, which are behind these components, are soft skills that are essential for successful interpersonal communications . Thus, EI can be assumed as a combination of soft skills, directed at the interaction with other people.
EI and Motivation for Wells, Fargo & Company
An emotionally mature employee is able to set feasible tasks for themselves and plan specific steps to achieve them. Moreover, such employees evaluate their actions and need advice only from experts but not support or control from outside. This is possible precisely because such employees know their internal and external capabilities and limitations. However, if it is about CEO or any other manager, their tasks are far beyond self-control and they are directed at the managing of small and medium social groups. Thus, their EI should be focused on the formation of affective commitment among their employees by increasing their social involvement in different activities. For example, the employees of Wells, Fargo & Company can have a common space for the relaxation for representatives of different departments, which will increase the social interaction and affect the formation of friendly relations among them . Moreover, during such communications, the new ideas regarding the improvement of work can be born. Additionally, the positive reinforcement of work motivation can include the use of the comparison theory, proposed by de Vries, Wawoe, and Holtrop . This theory states that when the primal desires of employees are satisfied, they start to compare their achievements with those of their colleagues. In such a way, the major desires in power and authority are satisfied.
The success of motivation impact is based not only on the manipulation with stimulus but also on employees values and goals. The use of positive and negative reinforcement should be linked with the personal accentuations in extrinsic or intrinsic motivation, which has been studied by Cerasoli, Nicklin, and Ford . Moreover, their findings show that extrinsic motivation has a less affective impact on the quality of performance of employees . Therefore, it can be assumed that negative reinforcement can be less productive than positive one. Nevertheless, this does not mean that negative reinforcement in form of sanctions for non-performance or poor quality of work duties should be canceled. According to the formula of performance, which was proposed by Anderson and Butzin , if the ability to solve the problem is 0, any increases in motivation will not increase performance, but it can decrease quality of work or provoke fraud. These ideas are applied in the modern theories of organizational ideology and they can be used for Wells, Fargo & Company in the proper motivation policy of organization, aimed at correcting of planning according to the abilities of personnel and the situation on market.
EI and Social Skills and Decision-Making
EI Impact on Social Skills
EI and social skills are very narrow definitions, and in a number of sources, they are assumed as synonymous. However, in this work, the idea that social skills are a component of EI is used. In the book Becoming a Manager Mastery of a New Identity, Hill referred to a study, in which almost two-thirds of graduates with business education had been given their first managerial task to solve. Thus, they minimally used the social skills, taught at MBA courses, or they did not apply them at all when these skills were supposed to be most useful. However, the social skills definition after that time had changed significantly. Thus, it has been included in the components of EI by Goleman, which means that social skills are in correlation with EI and they have a common basis in the identification of emotions, the understanding of intentions, motivations, and desires of others. Consequently, EI increases the understanding of one’s emotions and those of others, which affects the level of congruence and supports the formation of healthy relations with other as well as the establishment of communication with the decreased level of causal attribution. EI includes the social skills and influences them through the consolidated development of this skill along with others that form the components of EI, proposed earlier in this work.
EI Impact on Decision-making
When under effect of some emotional impact, the human brain does not help much in terms of decision-making. For example, Bradberry and Greaves described a leadership research, based on the 360 method. Thus, they found that among the sample, represented by 716 executives from a wide variety of companies and industries, approximately 70% of leaders (managers), who had received high EQ scores from colleagues, direct subordinates, and superiors, were also among the first in the field of effective decision-making. In contrast, those, who did not know how to control their emotions and to understand the emotions of others, also did not know how to make decisions. Moreover, 69% of these leaders with low EI coincide with 15% of the worst decision-makers. The human mind has a tendency to be confused by its own emotions in the situations where there is lack of information. Thus, the human brain attempts to fill the insufficiency of information about an event with other data, mainly based on the emotions or previous experience. In terms of decision-making, such a tendency is wrong and it can lead to negative outcomes, which means the necessity of emotional control and the understanding of the sphere of professional competence if one does not want to make spontaneous mistakes. Thus, EI is needed for the proper control of personal psychological state and conscientious duty performance in the situations of decision-making.
Effective teams are based on the effective leadership and communications. Goleman’s study has confirmed the idea that the ability to listen and hear others is more important than the ability to use one’s knowledge. Similarly, the ability to ask the right questions is more important than the capability of giving direct and clear orders. Goleman, Boyatsis, and McKee argue that the understanding of the role of emotions in the team distinguishes successful leaders from mediocre ones. Emotional leadership motivates the members of the team and supports loyalty to them and honest attitude to cooperation. Based on the management of weak signals captured by the emotional leader, such leadership strengthens instead of destroying the cohesion of teammates. Therefore, an effective team begins with the emotionally intelligent leader who is able to change their leadership style according to the work situation and to the psychological features of the group. At the same time, the team should be based on the idea of colorful policy, as proposed by Jansen, Vos, Otten, Podsiadlowski, and van der Zee . Thus, the policy implies the increased value of gender and cultural background in the working process and means the application of such a leadership strategy that will encourage each employee to use their background for the benefit of the team. Such a team should also have its in-group traditions and a resolved conflict of the in-group dynamics. The group traditions are focused on the formation of affective commitment and on the further strengthening of the group relations. In regards to this strategy, the group dynamics will be oriented towards the goal of the created team. If the team is created for a short-term project, the goal of leader is to stop the group dynamics at the phase of performance of common work. However, if the group is gathered for a long period, the duty of the leader is to lead the group as soon as possible to the phase of a built team, which means overcoming the aggression of the group towards itself and the leader . Thus, the team should pass through certain phases and be controlled by an emotionally intelligent leader in order to become effective.
The reward system for Wells, Fargo & Company should be focused on monetary rewarding, affective support, and social encouragement. The monetary reward direction should be represented by a fund that will be distributed among the personnel according to the scores of their performance that will be received through the evaluations, provided both by HR department and by superiors. According to these evaluations, rating will be awarded to each department, with the distribution of the monetary reward according to their place in the hierarchy. The affective support system as a part of reward system will be aimed at the provision of affective commitment. The main activity will be in the form of making positive surprises, such as monetary rewards, family trips, or any other present from organization, to the most committed employees. Moreover, this can also be based on the social expectations and hierarchy struggle, especially among CEOs who will be provided with the score system, aimed at the evaluation of their contribution to the development of the organization. According to this rating, the necessity in the comparison with others will be fulfilled. The social encouragement system will focus on the participation in social events, which can provide additional bonuses for workers, and in advanced social programs for those employees, who have proved their loyalty and perfect duty performance, in the form of the additional education or programs for the education of their children (scholarship programs). With such a reward system, employees will have visible positive examples of rewards, which will stimulate their performance. However, this reward system should be promptly updated according to the demands of the market. At the same time, it should not be related with the general plan because it can raise motivation, but it cannot change the abilities of the personnel, which decrease the quality of work and increase the chance of fraud.
Motivation strategy should be based on the emotionally intelligent leadership, which means that employees should be motivated according to their needs at different levels social, economic, and affective ones. The performance of employees is the result of multiplication of their ability to perform their duty by their motivation. Therefore, the motivation strategy should be constantly updated according to the requirements of the market and based on the ability of employees to fulfill them. In other case, the quality of their performance will drop, and they will even resort to fraud in order to perform their duties.
The team building strategy should involve the interaction of the group with their leader at different levels. At the management level, the leader should use their emotional intelligence for the formation of healthy relations in the group and for disregarding the emotional impact on their decision-making. Additionally, they should control the phase of group dynamics to overcome possible group conflicts and to build the team according to the goal. The group level implies that the strategy should be focused on the multicultural and colorful background of the team, which increases the possibility of a positive impact of their background on their performance. Thus, the management of the team should be based on the proper use of EI, soft skills, and non-violent communications that will help form positive relations in the organization and outline a congruent leadership strategy. This article was comosed by Red Gun . Works you can find in this site essay professors